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La Conquista Edit

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History of Peru index


00.28 Zapata: Oye, Benito. Hoy día vamos a presentar el programa sobre la conquista de los Incas. // Hey, Benito. Today we are going to present a (the) programme about the conquest of the Incas. Benito: El Tawantinsuyu. // The Tawantinsuyu (Inca Empire lit. tawa/four suyu/region.) Zapata: Un clásico de la historia peruana, Benito, que lamentablemente se cuenta algunas veces muy mal. // A classic story of Peruvian history, Benito which unfortunately they sometimes tell really badly. :: Y? / And? : Porque se dice que un grupo de 170 españoles derribó un imperio de 12 millones de personas allí en Cajamarca. // Because they say that a group of just 170 Spaniards in Cajamarca defeated an empire of 12 million people. Eso es imposible, Profesor. // That’s impossible, Professor.


00.50 Zapata: Y lesiona la autoestima de los peruanos, y encima tu sabes que no es cierto porque en realidad este grupo de españoles - hablando de ellos primero - eran la avanzada de la civilización occidental y tenían cuarenta años de experiencia porque Colon había ya llegado al Nuevo mundo 40 años antes que Pizarro al Perú. // And it wounds the self-esteem of the Peruvians. And above all you know that it is not true because actually this group of Spaniards – speaking about them first – were the advance guard of Westerners / Europeans (civilisation / had the trappings of Western technology) and had forty years of (campaign) experience because Columbus had arrived in the New World (1492) forty years before Pizarro got to Peru (in 1532). Benito: Ya. // OK. Zapata: De todas maneras tenían un plan. // In any case they had a plan. Benito: Cual era, Profesor? // What was it, Professor?



Zapata: Capturar el rey. // Capture the Inca. Benito: Ya. Zapata: En un emboscado capturar el soberano, y a partir de allí desmembrar la entidad política de los indígenas. // In an ambush, capture the sovereign and from there dismember/ destroy the political entity/ infrastructure of the indigenous people. Benito: La estrategia de la ajedrez. // The strategy of chess. Zapata: Exacto capturar el rey y sacar el juego. // Exactly, capture the Inca king and win the game. Benito: Saca mate // Check mate.


1.37 Efraín Trelles La conquista es una empresa económica y no es una empresa ibérica. Segundo es una empresa privada. No es el estado español que lo hace la conquista. Los conquistadores ha (auto) financiado. Y a cambio de este riesco reciben el exceso? fuerzo del trabajo de los/las indígenas. // The conquest was an economic enterprise not an Iberian one. Secondly it was undertaken privately. It wasn’t the Spanish state which was the conqueror. The conquistadors financed it themselves and for the risks they took on they received the surplus labour of the native American.


2.01 José Antonio del Busto Con la conquista uno no puede lamentarse ni felicitarse, simplemente eso pasó ni aplaudir sucedió. En el imperio de los Incas no era perfecto. El imperio de los Incas lo conozco yo – no era perfecto como el imperio español tampoco no eran. Eran dos realidades humanas, dos lógicos distintos, dos modos de pensar, dos culturas que se encontraron . . . // The conquest was neither to be grieved over nor to be applauded. It happened. The Inca empire was not perfect. Neither was the Spanish. They were two human realities, two distinct systems of logic, two modes of thought, and two cultures which collided [note 3 - There is a variety of words used to describe the invasion by the Spaniards: conquest, encounter, collision, “the traumatic events of 1532” ] with each other and . . .


2.33 Narrativo / voiceover El final del Tawantinsuyu se anunció cuando Huayna Capac era el soberano y gobernaba desde Quito. En ese momento, el inca recibió noticias del segundo viaje de los españoles. 2.54 Pizarro había desembarcado en Tumbes, luego había vuelto a su carabela bajando por la costa hasta avizorar Chan Chan. Ahí tomó la decisión de retornar a España para armar una expedición en regla; el incario era demasiado imponente para las fuerzas que disponía entonces. Luego, se enfermó el inca viejo y su sucesor ya designado. Llegaban las epidemias. En esta ocasión, se trataba de la viruela, una enfermedad del Viejo Mundo cuyos gérmenes viajaban más rápido que los conquistadores y atacaban con feroz mortalidad a poblaciones que carecían de defensas adecuadas. Ambos fallecieron y se creó un peligroso vacío de poder en el incario. // Pizarro had landed in Tumbes, then he had returned to his caravel and continued down the coast until Chan Chan (the old Chimu city) was sighted / had come into view. There he decided to return to Spain to fit out a more adequate expedition as the incario was more than a match for his limited forces. Then the old Inca became ill and his successor had already been designated. Epidemics struck. This time it was smallpox, a disease from the Old World which (whose germs / bacteria?) travelled (traveled US) faster than the conquistadors and attacked - with extremely high death rates - populations which were lacking adequate defences. Both . . . . died and created a dangerous power vacuum in the Inca Empire.


3.40 Gabriela Ramos El poder de los epidémias – contra eso, quien pudo hacer algo u nadie lo entendía en esa época. Los españoles entendieron eso era una especie de ayuda especial, que recibieron por el hecho de ser cristianos. // Nobody could do anything in the face of these epidemics nor did they understand anything about them at that time. The Spaniards thought of them as a type of special help which they received by virtue of their being Christian.


4.00 Voiceover La madre de Huascar era la Coya y al producirse la muerte de Huayna Capac, salió de Quito corriendo al Cuzco, donde hizo proclamar a su hijo como nuevo Inca. // The mother of Huascar was the Coya and on the death of Huayna Capac, she quickly left Quito for Cuzco, where she proclaimed her son the new Inca.


4.11 José Antonio del Busto Huascar no fue muy acertado yo . . esa ocasión alguna risa cuando digo que la vida de Huascar era muy similar a un playboy y fue hace un individuo carecia / padecía disciplino objetivo vivía solamente para divertirse no era por dicirlo el digno sucesor de Huayna Capac, ni nieto de Tupak Yupanki ni nieto de Pachacutec. // Huascar was not quite right for the job. I smile when I say that Huascar’s life was similar to that of a playboy. He was a person who lacked discipline and objectivity and lived only to enjoy himself. He wasn’t the dignified successor to Hayna Capac, nor Tupac Yupanki or Pachacutec.


4.36 Narative Voiceover Pero, Huascar inició su gobierno con medidas radicales. El nuevo monarca intentó cortar el poder de las familias de la nobleza imperial, denominadas “panacas”, porque habían extendido su poder en exceso y una enorme extensión de territorio estaba siendo privatizado por la aristocracia cuzqueña. // But Huascar began his government with radical measures. The new monarch sought to limit the power of the families of the imperial nobility (called panacas) because they had extended their power excessively and a huge expanse of territory was being privatised by the aristocracy of Cuzco.


4.51 Guillermo Cock Cada panaca, cada inca y sus descendientes se apropiaban de valles completos y convertían a la población en yanaconas y dependían directamente de ellos lo cual le complicaba al estado el manejo porque sacaba por un lado de este . . . esta gente de su control directo y añadir además un elemento adicional de intermediación. Si ellos necesitaban algo de esta zona si necesitaban gente de esta zona tiene que ir al jefe de los clanes de Cuzco. // Every panaca, every inca and his descendents were taking over complete valleys and converting their populations into yanaconas and these were depending directly on them. This made the management of the state more complex because on the one hand it took these people out of the direct control of the Inca and added also other intermediaries. If the state needed something from this zone, if they needed people / labour from this area it had to go to the clan(s’) chieftain(s) of Cuzco.


5.31 Narative Voiceover Las decisiones de Huascar fueron resistidas por las grandes familias aristocráticas y algunas se rebelaron llamando a Atahualpa para que encabece un levantamiento contra el Inca recién proclamado. Por su parte, Atahualpa era otro hijo de Huayna Capac que, junto con parte de la corte, había acompañado a su padre a Quito. // The decisions of Huascar were resisted by the great aristocratic families and some rebelled, calling on Atahualpa to lead an uprising against the newly proclaimed Inca. For his part, Atahualpa was also a son of Huayna Capac and he, along with part of the court, had accompanied his father to Quito.




End of clip 1.




Notes


1. Both "conquest" and "tawantinsuyu" (Cuzco-Quechua) present problems in translation. Many Peruvian schools teach something about Tawantinsuyu. To an extent the word is known in Peru (70 percent spoke Quechua 100 years ago) but not in Europe. Benito helps us without offending us. . . .


2. One of the most prolific of Peruvian historians.


3. There is a debate regarding which words to use to describe the invasión by the Spaniards: encounter, collision, “the traumatic events of 1532”. Retrieved from " http://academia.wikia.com/wiki/La_Conquista"

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