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History of Peru


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Republicantroops1879
History of Chilean rivalry. There were a series of what Palmerston might have called punitive expeditions from the viceregal capital Lima during colonial times, annoying to Chile. It was Chilean troops (amongst others) under Gen. San Martin that "invaded" Spanish Peru and "liberated" Lima in 1821. They invaded twice during the conflict over the Bolivia-Peru Confederation (1836-39) and then again in 1879-83 (the War of the Pacific), occupying Lima and permanently depriving Peru of its nitrate-rich Tarapacá Department. So it could be said that Chile has invaded Peru four times in the period 1820-83. The trauma of the brutal Chilean occupation, though over a century ago, lives on in the collective memory and is easily exploited by the media, so it is hardly surprising that Peru's military prepares primarily for conflict with Chile. However today any "invasion" is in the form of exports to Peru and investment takeovers of the country's banks and industries.


Jicamarca large
History of international-level research and development in Peru. This vineyard-like antenna has been in this valley near Lima since the early sixties. The radio observatory has been one of Peru's high-level research projects. Some say it's a luxury which middle-income countries cannot afford. Others claim it to be vital for the country to be able to find its own path to development. Others empirically observe that Peru's neighbour to the far north (the USA) was positively bristling with inventors at the time of independence. Have a look at the Jicamarca videos.



JicamarcaHistory of international-level research and development in Peru. This vineyard-like antenna has been in this valley near Lima since the early sixties. The radio observatory has been one of Peru's highest-level research projects. Some say it's a luxury which middle-income countries cannot afford. Others claim it to be vital for the country to be able to find its own path to development. Others empirically observe that Peru's neighbor to the far north was positively bristling with inventors at the time of independence. Enlarge the photo on the left. Have a look at the Jicamarca videos. . . .
  • DanceflooratCayac2006
    History of migration Peru, Europe, China, Africa, Japan
  • Guanolabour
    History of Booms and Busts in Peru





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BEFORE YOU STARTEdit

Install the "Bridgebuilder" collection of software.Edit

These pages work best when using the Mozilla Firefox web browser and its add-ons Zotero and Coldview. If these are installed (see below) you can place the mouse pointer over (don't click) any of the highlighted links and footnotes to view/read the content. Zotero helps to share library collections, form joint study and research groups as well as doing bibliographic management and print-outs etc.

Example: annoyed by adverts?Edit

To check whether Coldview or another "link-viewer" is working, place the mouse-pointer over a highlighted word or phrase / or over the "blue and white diagonal P (Preview) symbol (you choose which in Coldview preferences)". For example place the mouse-pointer over "template" or its preview symbol in the following sentence "A template may be used to say sorry to viewers that, for the moment, we have to accept advertising." A template is something that may be copied and pasted onto (almost) any page.

Example: other templatesEdit

Other examples of templates are the "contents" and "title" templates (which should be?) used at the top of the article (all articles?). Yet others are indexed (listed) under T (mouseover "contents" then click on "Index" OR click on "Index" in contents-menu at the top of the page. E.g. The "Caveat" template is a marker or flag which you can attach to any text which you consider "dodgy". Other "flag templates" are "citation needed" and "clarification needed / clarify".

Example: to read an original sourceEdit

In OJPS this is facilitated by the "Bridgebuilder" package. Example - Huaman Poma de Ayala records that the Inca found it difficult to believe that the Spaniards attached so much importance to gold ... Do you eat gold? (See page 371 of Human Poma 1615). Mouseover on the "diagonal P sign" or on the highlighted link (you can choose which go to Zotero / Actions (cog-wheel in the top menus of the Zotero window)/ Support and documentation).

The purpose of Bridgebuilder in briefEdit

The "Bridgebuilder" programme supports the formation of collaborative research and study groups. In the case of these pages on the "History of Peru" the programme is designed initially for collaboration between students and subject-specialists in Peru and those abroad - in the wide field of history.[1]

Downloads and base-pagesEdit

Portuguese and Spanish Speakers in the UKEdit

Link to the wider programmeEdit

See programme for Portuguese and Spanish Speakers in the UK.


INTRODUCTIONEdit

This introduction to the history of Peru goes on to answer the questions raised in the preface but first, so that we can see ahead a list of the topics, the a-la-carte menu, from which - in the second section - you can develop the customised tutorials for yourself and/or your group.

  • Early complex societies Caral.
  • Chavín: El Formativo / The formative period.
  • Mochica y Nazca . Primer Intermedio / The first intermediate period.
  • El Tahuantinsuyu / The Incas.
  • La Conquista / The conquest.
  • Virreynato. Economía y Sociedad / Viceroyalty, economy and society.
  • Las Reformas Borbónicas / The Bourbon reforms.
  • Túpac Amaru, el gran rebelde / Tupac Amaru, the great rebel.
  • El Perú Independiente / Independent Peru.
  • Confederación Perú – Boliviana / the Peru-Bolivian Confederation.
  • El Guano, las economías de exportación / Guano, the export economies.
  • La guerra del Pacífico / the Pacific (Nitrates) War.
  • El Perú en la Segunda Guerra Mundial / Peru of the Second World War.
  • Perú. Economía y Tributación / Peru. Economy and taxation.
  • Women in Peru.
  • Bomberos en el Perú / the fire service in Peru.


This history of Peru is based on and around Antonio Zapata's well-known TVPeru series Sucedio en el Peru. There is at least one of Toni's TVPeru videos in each lead article. The History of Peru - which in opentext format - also comes equipped with a series of workshops (talleres) producing artwork, images, "templates" and access to a set of library resources and customised tutorials. The first template is called Template:History masthead.
History of Peru


If you would like to design a better title banner or masthead you can modify the existing one. You make it like this, by opening the "edit mode" page or by making a new one called for the moment Template:HistoryMasthead_New (Click). REMEMBER: if you change a template, the text will automatically change in all the webpages using the template.

FAST TRACK Click on La Conquista to skip the next sections on resources and historiography and fast-forward to 1532. Or help to develop pages on the early "complex societies" in Peru. Click on Caral: approximately 5000 years ago".

The second template is named Template:HistoryContents and helps viewers navigate around the website. Your new page will automatically be indexed if you place {{Category:History of Peru}} at the foot of your page. Check by clicking "Index".

For a full list of templates click Index and select Template:Page under "T" or see Other templates in the table of contents below.


The problem of languageEdit

The videos are in Spanish and you are invited to start up or improve a translation in your local language so this opentext History of Peru can be understood by most people where you live. This History was initially directed to those watching TVPeru, the National TV channel in Peru and these pages - mainly in English - will be of use in Ireland, the UK, Malta, and other Anglophone countries and areas where English is understood.

Most reader-viewers on our initial email lists are bilingual. If you spot incomplete (sometimes non-existant!) or incorrect transcriptions and translations flag them up. The same goes for any other text or images. If you have time edit the text, your contribution will be acknowledged in the log (Click History tab at top of the page). You can discuss points in the discussion area (Click Discussion tab) and in the parallel blog (not yet activated - you can do this for the page or topic you are writing on).

The original text of the video's narrative together with a version in English should be placed alongside the video.

Other templatesEdit

Another template which is useful if pasted onto pages with videos is the Template:Timer which advises how to find text in a video. Template:Timer Template:Timer Incidentally, if you are not using one already and you want to keep track of all the sources, references, webpages, books and other media you come across try "Zotero" or similar software. The following is a template you can paste onto your own page to inform others and perhaps remind yourself about "reference management software". Template:Webpage and references management Template:Webpage and references management For a full list of templates click Index and select Template:Page under "T" or see the list below. Template:ForWhom Template:ForWhom Template:Go Template:Go Template:Stop Template:Stop Template:Fact Template:Fact Template:Peru1 Template:Peru1 Template:Tutorials classes Template:Tutorials classes Template:Mouseover_previewer Template:Mouseover previewer

Many ways of writing historyEdit

Collaborative history Edit

This series uses a collaborative approach [2] based on and around the TVPeru (National Television) series Sucedio en el Perú. Note that the videos are in Spanish. If you find that the video you want to watch has not been translated, help to produce versions in your national or regional language: English, Catalan, Italian, French, German, Japanese . . . and add explanatory notes if you wish. For one way of doing this see script on the Conquest (La Conquista). You need to be able to play Flash videos or YouTube videos. Readers can add content to most of the pages. You can design and share your own tutorial - for yourself, for your group (see tutorials below). You can also add new pages on new topics [create new page]. If you are not sure about the contribution you would like to make or would just like to make a suggestion click Discussion tab at top of page.

Reasons for this approachEdit

Historians and historyEdit

Sometimes the historian is as significant as the history itself. History comes to be retold or reframed. There have been watersheds, milestones (hitos) in the writing of history.

Watersheds: Jorge BasadreEdit

For many Basadre had been the best known historian of the "generation of the 20's" - "Basadre perteneció a la generación del 20, una de las generaciones más brillantes y prolíficas que ha tenido el Perú del siglo XX.
File:SeeP - Jorge Basadre - Bloque 1
Forman parte de ella José Carlos Mariátegui Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, Luis Alberto Sánchez, Manuel Seoane, Raúl Porras Barrenechea, Jorge Guillermo Leguía, Honorio Delgado, Manuel Abastos, entre otros. Es la llamada generación de la Reforma Universitaria." For an overall appreciation see López Jiménez, Sinesio "Basadre: historiador, bibliotecario y ministro[3]." Note that this is in Spanish.[4] Or for a series of videos on Basadre click watch

"Sucedió en el Perú - Basadre".( Watch in separate window). See also Problems in Historiography below.

Other milestonesEdit

ENTER OTHER MILESTONES HERE

The Biblioteca Nacional as the central resourceEdit

All documents published in Peru should by law be deposited in the Biblioteca Nacional. The problem is that not all are and this problem is agravated by the fact that many well researched and relevant documents about Peru are not published in Peru. Compare the entries in the Biblioteca Nacional online catalogue with those in the WorldCat, in that of the British Library . . . or that of the Universidad Católica in Lima (one of the best collections in the field of history). The problem in the case of this Opentext History of Peru is to determine at what point articles become "published" and whether a virtual document accessed from an apparently anonymous internet server is effectively "published in Peru".

See also section on Virtual (online) Libraries in La Conquista.

There are of course many ways of interpreting and focusing on these resources, many ways of delivering courses and each reader, viewer, student, tutor or user will have a particular set of requirements. So each topic or article could have a variety of tutorials. Each topic or article therefore has a section on "Resources" (available to all) and a section on "Research and Tutorials" (customised). This collaborative history depends on each student or group of students (tutorial group) adding their own "model" of a tutorial so that others do not have to reinvent the wheel.

ResourcesEdit

Accessibility of documentsEdit

The material comes in two parts (A) Resources and (B) Tutorials. We hope that - eventually - (A) Resources will contain, in addition to the videos, a complete list of accessible (online or widely available) documents relating to the topic or period (or links to websites where the documents' contents may be viewed). Publishers (private or corporate) of documents containing data obtained in Peru have a legal obligation to deposit copies of the work with the Peruvian National Library, if the intention is to publish in Peru. Donation certificates will be given for other publications given to the Library. It is hoped that all (A) Resources [5] will be archived at the National Library of Peru (BNP) and viewable from secure backup and mirror websites. The most comprehensive index to resources is currently the University of Texas and the most comprehensive collection that of the joint libraries of the University of California. In Europe Berlin probably* has the greatest overall collection. (The Ibero-American Institute at the Potsdamer Platz in the heart of Berlin.) We hope that where it comes to Peruvian materials that the BNP will be able to house comparable collections and that this 'History of Peru' project will be able to aid that aim.

Problems in historiography Edit

There has been, over the last few decades, a opening-up of the ways of doing history, of writing about the past. This tendency has provided greater space for other voices to be heard. For a discussion of recent trends in ways of writing histories see López, Sinesio La reinvención de la historia de abajo; Drinot, Paulo After the Nueva Historia: Recent Trends in Peruvian Historiography which provides a good overview of trends in Peruvian historiography during the last few decades; or Drinot, Paulo (University of Oxford) Historiography, Historiographic Identity and Historical Consciousness in Peru. On the specifics of reading early Spanish sources see Julien, Catherine [http://books.google.com/books?id=LIUjakb6R-0C Reading Inca History

Wider fieldsEdit

There has been a tendency not only to find space for more voices but also to widen the approach or methodologies involved. tFor example in applying multidisciplinary approaches - social science with history, statistical methods with history, economics and history and one that this author has emphasised - development studies and history (see tutorials below). See also Dávalos y Lissón, Pedro, (1863-1942) "La primera centuria: causas geográficas, políticas y económicas que han detenido el progreso moral y material del Perú en el primer siglo de su vida independiente." published in 1919.

Peru-sources in the public (collaboratively editable) domainEdit

There are now substantial resources in the public domain but with a wide spread of quality. Most are not peer-reviewed and many are not signed or it is not easy to determine the author.

Why not volunteer to be a "mediator" - to check over wikipedia articles in the "Peru" category, not to censor or delete, but just to flag-up when an extra citation is needed, when a section needs clarification (when it is not understandable by the average Joe) or when transcriptions and translations fall down.

The main family of articles concerning Peru is to be found listed at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special%3ACategoryTree&target=peru&mode=categories Parents: Andean Community of Nations | Countries bordering the Pacific Ocean | Parent categories | South American countries. Note specifically the category "History of Peru"  (If a mouseover previewer such as CoolPreview is installed, place the mouse pointer over the "diagonal P sign on a blue background in the case of CoolPreview" - a bit like a toppled parking sign - in order to view the linked page without leaving the page you are on.)



[−] Peru (22)

  • [+] Peru portal (0)
  • [+] Buildings and structures in Peru (24)
  • [+] Communications in Peru (2)
  • [+] Peruvian culture (23)
  • [+] Economy of Peru (10)
  • [+] Education in Peru (5)
  • [+] Environment of Peru (5)
  • [+] Geography of Peru (13)
  • [+] Government of Peru (8)
  • [+] Health in Peru (3)
  • [+] History of Peru (16)
  • [+] Peruvian law (6)
  • [+] Metropolitan areas of Peru (0)
  • [+] Military of Peru (5)
  • [+] Peru-related lists (0)
  • [+] Peruvian people (15)
  • [+] Politics of Peru (8)
  • [+] Science and technology in Peru (4)
  • [+] Peruvian society (11)
  • [+] Transportation in Peru (10)
  • [+] Images of Peru (0)
  • [+] Peru stubs (3)


What is a stub?Edit

You create a new page or article: http://academia.wikia.com/wiki/Special:CreatePage. Yor give it a title. You write a short piece and maybe correct it several times or add something to it and you write "stub" and then "still stub" or "stub continued" in the "Summary" boxes. That's your STUB - which you hope will inspire many collaborators to "improve".

Cross references: articles in the History of Peru - wikipediaEdit

The index of the category: History of Peru.

The "History" wikiaEdit

Watch these webpages also.

Further sections in preparationEdit

Please list articles you are working on but are not yet prepared to unleash on the population at large (so that the wheel is not reinvented).



TutorialsEdit

There is space for telling as many as possible of the stories in Peruvian history! Include a record of your recent tutorial under a relevant topic heading. History of Peru (in English) is designed to be sufficiently flexible to be of use to all English-speakers interested in the theme. It does this by accessing the new and rapidly expanding digital resources - see (A) Resources - and by forming as many specialised tutorial groups as necessary - see (B) Tutorials (sometimes called classes, learning groups, study groups, project groups, research groups . . . ) below.

Specialised tutorials / research groups (new materials are / should be sent by email to group members - usually 1-9 in number). Current themes / mailings include: Peruvian women in history, Afroperuvian history, Diplomatic history, History of Peruvian diaspora, History of Peruvian literature, British Peruvian history, French Peruvian history, History of Peruvian music and dance, History of Peruvian Art , Peruvian social history, Peruvian economic history, Ideas in Peruvian history . . .

"General Peruvian History" and "Writing projects, dissertations and presentations on Peru" are not mailed but included on the History pages.

Materials developed in tutorials are shared internationally via the "Tutorials" space for each topic. Summaries should be provided in Spanish.

Teachers of history and associated subjects - where they have one or more student(s) with Peruvian heritage - are encouraged to set up a self-administered "tutorial" or "research" group.

Topics which are open for collaborative editing Edit

Caral, La Conquista, La Conquista 2, La Conquista 3, La Conquista 4, La Conquista 5.

Topics which are waiting page creationEdit

Caral (See Above); Chavín: El Formativo; Moche Nazca, Intermedio temprano; El Tahuantinsuyu; La Conquista (See above); Virreynato; Economía y Sociedad ; Las Reformas Borbónicas; Túpac Amaru, el gran rebelde; El Perú Independiente; Confederación Perú – Boliviana; El Guano, las economías de exportación; La guerra del Pacífico; El Perú en la Segunda Guerra Mundial; Perú, Economía y Tributación. 25 Oct 2009 Preface | Intro| Index Introduction to Bridgebuilder

ScheduleEdit

25 Oct 2009 Preface | Intro| Index

               Introduction to Bridgebuilder
	

01 Nov 2009

08 Nov 2009 Caral

15 Nov 2009

22 Nov 2009 Chavín

29 Nov 2009

06 Dec 2009 Moche-Nazca

13 Dec 2009

20 Dec 2009 Wari-Tihuanaco (no video yet)

27 Dec 2009

03 Jan 2010 Special topic (the Khipu)

10 Jan 2010

17 Jan 2010 Incas

24 Jan 2010

31 Jan 2010 Conquest

07 Feb 2010

14 Feb 2010 Viceroyalty

21 Feb 2010 28 Feb 2010 Bourbon Reforms

07 Mar 2010

14 Mar 2010 Special topic (the 1746 Lima Earthquake)

21 Mar 2010

28 Mar 2010 Tupac Amaru

04 Apr 2010

11 Apr 2010 Independence

18 Apr 2010

25 Apr 2010 Confederation and caudillo wars

02 May 2010

09 May 2010 Special topic - select from website

16 May 2010

23 May 2010 Guano

30 May 2010

06 June 2010 Nitrates War

13 June 2010

20 June 2010 WW2

27 June 2010

04 July 2010 Economy

FootnotesEdit

  1. (currently being redrafted) Bridgebulder has been inspired by projects at San Agustin, Berkeley, La Católica, Kings College London, LMU and others. . . which has as its objective the encouragement and practical dissemination of open learning and specialist research. The advantage of the Bridgebuilder package is that it is ready to go. It uses already developed software integrated with two of the most-popular "knowledge-sharing / Web sites" (Wkipedia and YouTube) . . . Bridgebuilder, historiography and methodologies in historical research. The basic method encouraged here is "evidence and further explanation included". Whereas the crie de coeur or more probably crie de guerre of Wikipedia is "citation needed", the norm for this part of academia-wikia (the Opentext Journal of Peruvian Studies: OJPS) is or should be "not just to provide a reference or link to the citation" but to provide a copy of the evidence itself, whether a photo, a passage from a book or article, a filmed interview with a specialist . . . and to do this without having to click on a link.
  2. Utilising knowledge-sharing (Web 2.0) technologies: collaborative editing software, video-sharing networking etc.
  3. This has been moved to http://www.bnp.gob.pe/portalbnp/pdf/libros_y_artes/Librosyartes3_1.pdf Oct 2009
  4. Help to produce a version in your national or regional language. Every paragraph counts.
  5. Almost all documents of more than 70 years can now be placed legally on Internet without infringing copyright law and there is now an expanding collection accessible by anyone with internet (i.e not everyone). The virtual library of the Biblioteca Nacional del Perú will be able to provide increasing access to collections.

Further LinksEdit

History of Peru - Academic Publishing Wiki - Collaborative historyEdit

This series uses a collaborative approach [1] based on and around the TVPeru (National Television) series Sucedio en el Perú. Note that the videos are in Spanish. If you find that the video you want to watch has not been translated, help to produce versions in your national or regional language: English, Catalan, Italian, French, German, Japanese . . . with explanatory notes. For one way of doing this see script on the Conquest (La Conquista). You need to be able to play Flash videos or YouTube videos. Readers can add content to most of the pages. You can design and share your own tutorial - for yourself, for your group (see tutorials below). You can also add new pages on new topics [create new page]. If you are not sure about the contribution you would like to make or would just like to make a suggestion click Discussion tab at top of page. Read more.

Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu - UNESCO World Heritage CentreEdit

Veiled Aeropolis/The Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu

The ruins of Machu Picchu, an Inca city built in the mid-15th century, are in the Peruvian Andes of South America. Machu Picchu is located on a mountain ridge some 2,400 metres above sea level. It’s known as an “Aeropolis”. The main part of the site covers an area of around 9 hectares. It is believed that the city had a population of more than 500 people. The stone walls were built using highly sophisticated techniques. There are also the remains of a developed water system. Read more.

The Incas for Stage 3 history teachersEdit

Why "The Incas" is a good topic for the National Syllabus (England) and the resources to do the job There’s loads of stuff about the Incas on the net: see ‘Inca websites’ below. This site is mainly for History teachers in England trying to make sense of the National Curriculum for September 2008! Read more - many valuable links.

End of article - just one thing about "palimpsest".Edit

Template:Palimpsest Template:Palimpsest

Guanolabour
Guanolabour

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